# Top 10 Most Famous Mathematicians | The Greatest Mathematicians Of All Time

**Mathematics** is not just a subject, but it’s one of the essential parts of the world, **used almost everywhere**, such as **engineering, science, and technology**. It’s not overwhelming to say that **scientists and engineers** can’t do anything without the use of **mathematics**.

**Mathematics** is useful in **analyzing data, pattern recognition, and evidence seeking**. Mathematics is also helpful to understand complex pieces of information. There is much great mathematics, which gives the world **many theories and conceptual breakthroughs**, which are the base of modern mathematics.

This article focuses on the **top 10 most famous mathematicians** and their profound **contribution to mathematics**.

Table of Contents

**10. René Descartes**

**Born –** March 31, 1596

**Died –** February 11, 1650

**René Descartes** comes on Number (10) from our list of top 10 most famous mathematicians and greatest mathematicians of all time.

**René Descartes** is regarded as a **French mathematician, scientist, and philosopher**. His analytical geometry was a **tremendous conceptual** breakthrough, linking the previously separate fields of **geometry and algebra**.

**René Descartes** could solve previously **unsolvable problems in geometry** by converting them into **simpler problems in algebra**. He represented the horizontal direction as X and the vertical direction as Y, and this concept is now **indispensable in mathematics** and other sciences.

To tell you the truth, it was really you who got me out of my idleness and made me remember things I once learned and had nearly forgotten: when my mind wandered from serious [mathematical] matters, you put me back on the right path.René Descartes

**9. Aryabhata**

**Born –** 476 CE

**Died –** 550 CE

**Aryabhata** comes on Number (9) from our list of top 10 most famous mathematicians and greatest mathematicians of all time.

**Aryabhata** is one of the genius and first **Indian mathematician** in the world, and he made many **discoveries** in the **field of mathematics**, such as:

- Algebraic Identities
- Trigonometrical Functions
- The Value of pi
- Place Value System, etc.

His discovery of the closest approximate **value of ‘pi’** eased the **complications of mathematics**. Above all, he founded the **place value system and zero,** which are one of his major contributions in the history of mathematics. He was the center of many discoveries of **trigonometric functions**, which are very useful today.

**Aryabhata wrote many books**, and most of them are lost, but his major work is in “**Aryabhatiya**.” He divides his book into two different sections of **mathematics and astronomy**. The **mathematical section** of the book covers **arithmetic, algebra, plane trigonometry, and spherical trigonometry**. It also contains continued fractions, quadratic equations, sums-of-power series, and a table of sines.

**8. Archimedes**

**Born –** c. 287 BCE

**Died –** c. 212 BCE (Aged – 75 Years)

**Archimedes** comes on Number (8) from our list of top 10 most famous mathematicians and greatest mathematicians of all time.

**Archimedes** is one of the most recognized **mathematicians and inventors** of ancient Greece. He was also one of the first mathematicians to **apply mathematics to physical phenomena, founding hydrostatics, and statics**, including explaining the **principle of the lever**.

**Archimedes** discovered the relation between the **surface and volume of a sphere** and its **circumscribing cylinder**. He is known for his formulation of a **hydrostatic principle** (also known as **Archimedes’ principle**) and a device for raising water, which is even today by developing countries, known as the **Archimedes screw**.

**Archimedes** calculated modern calculus and analysis by applying **concepts of infinitesimals** and the method of exhaustion to derive and rigorously prove a range of **geometrical theorems**, which including the area of a circle; the surface area and volume of a sphere; the area of an ellipse; the area under a parabola; the volume of a segment of a paraboloid of revolution; the volume of a segment of a hyperboloid of revolution; and the area of a spiral.

**Archimedes** deriving an accurate **approximation of pi**; defining and investigating the spiral that now bears his name; and creating a system using **exponentiation** for expressing huge numbers. He was also credited with designing **innovative machines**, like his screw pump, compound pulleys, and defensive war machines to protect his native **Syracuse from invasion**.

Those who claim to discover everything but produce no proofs of the same may be confuted as having actually pretended to discover the impossible.Archimedes

**7. Bernhard Riemann**

**Born –** 17 September 1826

**Died –** 20 July 1866

**Bernhard Riemann** comes on Number (7) from our list of top 10 most famous mathematicians and greatest mathematicians of all time.

**Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann** was a German mathematician considered as one of the greatest mathematicians in history.

**Bernhard Riemann** majorly contributed to real number analysis, number theory, and differential geometry. He is widely known for the** first rigorous formulation of the integral**, the Riemann integral, and his work on the **Fourier series**.

He laid the **foundations of the mathematics of general relativity. **He also majorly contributed to **complex analysis**, including Riemann surfaces’ introduction, breaking new ground in the **natural, geometric treatment of complex analysis**.

In the year 1859, **Riemann** publishes his paper on the **prime-counting function**, containing the original statement of the **Riemann hypothesis**, which give me recognition and proved one of the most important papers in **analytic number theory**. He is also known as a **pioneer contributor in analytic number theory**.

If only I had the Theorems! Then I should find the proofs easily enough.Bernhard Riemann

**6. Carl Friedrich Gauss**

**Born –** 30 April 1777

**Died –** 23 February 1855

**Carl Friedrich Gauss** comes on Number (6) from our list of top 10 most famous mathematicians and greatest mathematicians of all time.

Carl Friedrich Gauss or Johann Friedrich Carl Gauss was a **German mathematician**; his contribution to **number theory, geometry, probability theory, geodesy, planetary astronomy, the theory of functions, and potential theory** (including electromagnetism) make him **one of the greatest mathematicians** in the history.

**Carl Friedrich Gauss** was among the few mathematicians who were calculating prodigy, and he retained the ability to **elaborate calculations** in his head most of his life.

In the year 1801, **Carl Friedrich Gauss** publishes two major textbooks, which give him worldwide recognition. Foremost was his publication of the first systematic textbook on algebraic number theory. Disquisitiones Arithmeticaez, which contains the first account of **modular arithmetic**, gives a thorough account of the solutions of **quadratic polynomials in two variables in integers** and the **theory of factorization**.

The **second publication** was his **rediscovery of the asteroid Ceres; **today, it’s known as the **least squares method**. **Carl Friedrich Gauss** also wrote on cartography, the theory of map projections. For his study of angle-preserving maps, he was awarded the “**Danish Academy of Sciences**” in 1823.

It is not knowledge, but the act of learning, not possession but the act of getting there, which grants the greatest enjoyment.Carl Friedrich Gauss

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**5. Srinivasa Ramanujan**

**Born –** December 22, 1887

**Died –** April 26, 1920

**Srinivasa Ramanujan** comes on Number (5) from our list of top 10 most famous mathematicians and greatest mathematicians of all time.

**Srinivasa Ramanujan** is one of the most influential **Indian mathematicians** in the recent history of mathematics. He was a **college dropout**, the self-taught mathematician who spent his young age on the floor of a temple surrounded by **Hindu deities**.

He contributed to the **analytical theory of numbers** and worked on **elliptic functions, continued fractions, and infinite series**. He also contributed to the **theory of numbers** include pioneering discoveries of the properties of the partition function.

**Ramanujan** died at **32 from a misdiagnosed illness**, leaving behind **three enigmatic notebooks**. There is also a movie available, based on **Srinivasa Ramanujan’s** life named “**The Man Who Knew Infinity**,” this is a must-watch movie.

An equation means nothing to me unless it expresses a thought of God.Srinivasa Ramanujan

**4. Isaac Newton**

**Born –** December 25, 1642

**Died –** March 20, 1726 (Aged – 84 Years)

**Isaac Newton** comes on Number (4) from our list of top 10 most famous mathematicians and greatest mathematicians of all time.

You may recall the name of **Sir Isaac Newton** from your school **science book**. He is a **Physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher,** and Newton is not only one of the **great mathematicians** but also one of the most **influential men in humankind’s history**.

**Isaac Newton** is famous for his formulation of the **laws of motion and universal gravitation**. Newton formulates a new theory of light, discovered and quantified gravitation, and gives a new mathematics approach: infinitesimal calculus. **Calculus** gives new direction to the **mathematician** and engineers in the field of **motion and dynamic**.

I can calculate the motion of heavenly bodies, but not the madness of people.Isaac Newton

**3. Leonhard Euler**

**Born –** April 15, 1707

**Death –** September 18, 1783

**Leonard Euler** comes on Number (3) from our list of top 10 most famous mathematicians and greatest mathematicians of all time.

**Leonhard Euler** was a **Swiss mathematician**, **physicist, university teacher, writer, music theorist, and astronomer**. He is one of the founders of pure mathematics of all time.

**Leonard Euler** covered almost all aspects of mathematics, including **geometry, calculus, trigonometry, algebra, number theory**, and **optics, astronomy, cartography, mechanics, weights and measures,** and even the theory of music.

Along with making **decisive and formative contributions** to **geometry, calculus, mechanics, and number theory**, he also developed methods for solving problems in **observational astronomy. **He demonstrated useful **applications of mathematics** in technology and public affairs.

Most useful notation even today – including **e, i, f(x), ∑, and the use of a, b, and c as constants and x, y and z as unknown**s – was either created, popularized, or standardized by him. Along with these and other symbols **such as π** and the **trigonometric functions** help to internationalize mathematics and encourage **collaboration on problems**.

One of the very useful equation **e ^{iπ} = −1** known as

**Euler’s Identity**, which combines arithmetic, calculus, trigonometry, and complex analysis into what has been called

**the most remarkable formula in mathematics**and filled with cosmic beauty. Another such discovery, often known simply as

**Euler’s Formula**, is

**e**.

^{ix}= −1 = cos*x*+ i sin*x*

Logic is the foundation of the certainty of all the knowledge we acquire.Leonhard Euler

**2. Euclid**

**Born –** Around 325 BCE

**Died –** Around 265 BCE

**Euclid** comes on Number (2) from our list of top 10 most famous mathematicians and greatest mathematicians of all time.

**Euclid** is known as a “**founder of geometry**” or “**father of geometry**” because much of western mathematics is a series of footnotes to **Euclid**, either developing his ideas or challenging them.

**Euclid,** the great **Greek mathematician**, wrote and published *around 13 book*s, codifying and summarizing the **state of mathematics**, principally **geometry and number theory**, as known at the time, which are known today as the elements.

The books are written in a **very systematic way**, starting with simple, **self-evident ideas** and clearly building upon them to **demonstrate more and more theorems and ideas**. Those ideas and theorems are used today as such in one form or another.

**Euclid’s** life is a mystery, and we don’t have much more information about his life. **Around 300 BCE**, he ran his own school in **Alexandria, Egypt**. He also wrote a **dozen of books**, but all of them are lost over a period of time.

The laws of nature are but the mathematical thoughts of God.Euclid

**1. Pythagoras**

**Born –** c. 570 BCE

**Died –** c. 495 BCE

**Pythagoras** comes on Number (1) from our list of top 10 most famous mathematicians and greatest mathematicians of all time.

**Pythagoras** was born on the Greek – **Samos Island** in the Aegean Sea. **Pythagoras** is known for discovering the ** Pythagorean theorem,** also known as Pythagoras’s theorem of geometry. It is widely believed that

**Babylonians and Indians**previously utilized this theorem, but

**Pythagoras**or his students were the first to

**construct its proof**.

**Pythagoras** also believed that numbers had personalities like **perfect or incomplete, masculine or feminine, beautiful or ugly**. Pythagoras studied properties of numbers that would be familiar to **mathematicians today,** like **even and odd numbers**. Pythagoras is recognized as the **first true mathematician** and one of the most recognized names in mathematics history.

**Pythagoras** made many **discoveries in mathematics and science,** and his most famous discovery is **Pythagoras’s theorem**.

Silence is better than unmeaning words.Pythagoras

These are some of the **most influential and greatest mathematicians** in the history of the world, which give a new path to the world in the field of mathematics, science, and technology.