Top 10 Best Branches Of Biology And Main Areas Of Biology

Biology is the study of living organisms and related mechanisms like body structure, body function, mode of growth, environment, mode of reproduction, and origin.

Biology is vast science in which all living organisms like bacteria, animals, and plants are all studied. Biology is not a new branch of science. Many ancient scientists contributed to them.

The contribution of some scientists are:

1. A Greek Philosopher named Aristotle existed in the era of 384-322 B.C. He categorizes the living organisms to divide the plants and animals.

Plants were divided into three categories; herbs, shrubs, trees, and animals divided into land residents, water residents, and air residents.

2. Another scientist named Andreas Vesalius was present in 1514-1564. He is called the father of modern anatomy.

He was studied human anatomy first time by separating carcasses “De Humani Corporis Fabrica.” His comparative approach is used on other animals to know their body functions.

3. An English physician named William Harvey exists in the era of 1578-1657. He describes the function of the heart, and he showed that the heart pump blood and blood circulates.

He gave an accurate explanation of the working of the circulatory system. He was provided a conviction that function and structure are studied together. This concept was helpful in the development of anatomy.

4. A scientist named Carl Linnaeus was present in 1707-1778. He is called the father of taxonomy because he developed binomial nomenclature to classify plants and animals.

5. A famous scientist Gregor Mendel was present in 1822-1884. He is called the father of genetics because he developed the principles of heredity.

He studied the heredity and variation of seven pairs of inherited characteristics in pea plants. Mendel’s Law is very famous and part of biology courses in high school and college.

6. A scientist named Charles Darwin was present in 1809-1882. He wrote the book “Origin of Species” in 1859. His book presents the theory of evolution by natural selection.

Many fields of biology are emerging, but the most established and advance 10 branches of biology are:

10. Zoology


Zoology comes on Number (10) from our list of top 10 best branches of biology.

Zoology is the field of biology in which animals and their related mechanisms like embryonic development, body functioning, behavior, evolution, the origin of their life, animal physiology, and mode of reproduction are studied.

The microscope was invented in the 19th century; then, it becomes possible to observe animal cells at the microscopic level.

Zoology has many subcategories because many types of animals are present in the world. Different animals are studied according to their type into their relative category.

Subcategories of zoology are:

  • Ornithology (the study of birds)
  • Mammalogy (the study of mammals)
  • Ichthyology (the study of fish)
  • Entomology (the study of insects)
  • Herpetology (the study of amphibians and reptiles).

9. Embryology


Embryology comes on Number (9) from our list of top 10 best branches of biology.

Embryology is the field of biology that deals with the development of the embryo. Embryology is a study from fertilization to zygote, zygote to the embryo, and embryo to the whole individual.

Many stages are involved in embryogenesis. The development of an organism from a single cell zygote can give many clues about an organism’s evolutionary history.

8. Anatomy


Anatomy comes on Number (8) from our list of top 10 best branches of biology.

Anatomy is the field of biology that deals with the structure of the whole body and relationships among different body parts. How is one organ related to other origins in the body? Gross anatomy is the study of body structures by dissection and its observation.

Comparative anatomy is important to know adaptive changes. Comparative anatomy involves the comparison of the same structure in different species of organisms.

They are undergoing the course of evolution. Anatomy is studied in medical colleges, especially in the degree of MBBS.

7. Ecology


Ecology comes on Number (7) from our list of top 10 best branches of biology.

Ecology is the study of an organism, its environment, and the interaction between both. Ecology is studied at various levels like an organism, population, community, biosphere, and ecosystem.

An ecologist aims to improve their understanding of adaptation, habitat, interactions, and biodiversity of the organism

The distribution of abiotic and biotic factors is also included in the ecologist’s goal. Abiotic factors included non-living components like soil, air, water, moisture, and sunlight. On the other hand, biotic factors included living components like bacteria, fungi, algae, and higher plants or animals.

Different types of Ecology are:

  • Global ecology
  • Molecular ecology
  • Population ecology
  • Landscape ecology
  • Ecosystem ecology
  • Community ecology
  • Organismal ecology.

6. Pathology


Pathology comes on Number (6) from our list of top 10 best branches of biology.

Pathology is the field of biology that deals with diseases and structural abnormalities. The 19th century is the biggest revolution in the pathology when the microscope is invented.

It becomes easy to determine the nature of the disease by focusing on a single cell instead of focusing on the entire organism

There are three main sub-types of pathology given below:

  • Anatomical Pathology
  • Clinical Pathology
  • Molecular Pathology

5. Botany


Botany comes on Number (5) from our list of top 10 best branches of biology.

Botany is a biology field in which plants and their related studied, like embryogenesis, growth, developments, the origin of plants, and types of plants.

Study of grasses, herbs, shrubs, flowering plants, non-flowering plants, and fruits producing plants are studied in botany. It is a vast field and an emerging field.

Botany is also not a new field because people were used plants as food sources and medicines in ancient times. An ancient Greek scholar Theophrastus was famous for his work in botany. He wrote two major sets of books, so he is called the father of botany.

Many processes of the plant body are studied in this field like germination, the function of chlorophyll, photosynthesis, the process of spores’ formation in plants, developments of roots and shoots, dormancy effects of hormones in the growth of the plant, and environmental factors effects on the growth of plants.

Many sub-categories have come under botany. Some are given below.

  • Bryology (the study of mosses and liverworts)
  • Lichenology (the study of lichens)
  • Phycology (the study of algae)
  • Pteridology (the study of ferns)
  • Mycology (the study of fungi).

4. Microbiology


Microbiology comes on Number (4) from our list of top 10 best branches of biology.

Microbiology is the field of biology in which living organisms are studied that are too small to visible with the naked eyes.

Bacteria, viruses, protozoa, prions are included in microorganisms, which are collectively called microbes. Some ancient microbiologist made certain discoveries in the past.

Fleming was a famous scientist, and once he was working in his lab. He had a Petri plate in his hand and certain microbes on it. Meanwhile, a small cluster of spores entered from the broken window and fall on his Petri plate.

He saw that all the microbes removed that were present on the Petri plate. In this way, he discovered penicillin.

Microorganisms are present around us, and they are involved in many processes like biodegradation, bioremediation, removing of pollution, production of food and drinks, pharmaceutical industries, and food spoilage.

Two types of microbes are studied in microbiology:

  • Desired Microbes
  • Undesired Microbes.

Desired microbes are beneficial bacteria for human beings, while undesired bacteria are harmful bacteria for human beings.

Harmful bacteria cause severe diseases like E. coli. Microbiology is a vast and emerging field, and it is emerging with time because viruses and bacteria are introduced with time.

3. Immunology


Immunology comes on Number (3) from our list of top 10 best branches of biology.

Immunology is the study of the immune system’s biological functioning in both cases; health and disease. Immunology is a vast field and used in medical sciences.

Immunology deals with the immune system’s primary lymphoid organs and their physical, chemical, and structural characterizes.

Lymphoid organs of the immune system are the thymus, bone marrow, spleen, tonsils, lymph vessels, lymph nodes, adenoids, and skin. It deals with the defense mechanism of organisms against a foreign invader.

Two types of immunity are studied in coordination with the immune system; innate immunity and adaptive immunity.

Innate Immunity

Innate immunity is the first line of defense, and it does not save memory against the foreign invader and cannot improve with time. The epithelial layer, skin, mucous membranes are components of innate immunity.

Adaptive Immunity

Adaptive immunity is the second line of defense and safe memory of foreign invaders. T cells and B cells are two major components of adaptive immunity.

2. Genetics


Genetics comes on Number (2) from our list of top 10 best branches of biology.

Genetics is the biology field that deals with the study of genes, heredity, and genetic variation in organisms. Genes are fundamental units that are responsible for heredity.

In genetics, all levels are studies like working genes inside the cells, transmitting heredity materials from parents to new offspring.

Genes are made up of (DNA) Deoxyribonucleic acid, and they control the living process in the body. Genetics affects your hair, skin color, and eye color.

Genetics diseases that are transmitted from parents to offspring are studied in genetics. Genetics is an emerging and vast field, and many scientists are working on genetics and making progress with time.

1. Biotechnology


Biotechnology comes on Number (1) from our list of top 10 best branches of biology.

Biotechnology is an emerging and most practiced field in the present time. It deals with practical applications for producing useful substances by using living organisms like the use of bacteria for the production of insulin.

Living organisms are used for making useful products. Biotechnology is used to solve environmental problems like pollution, biofuel production, sewage, ozone depletion, and many more.

It is used in improving foods like fermentation and canning and also involved in the production of therapeutic proteins and pharmaceutical drugs by the use of genetic engineering.

Genetic engineering involves the manipulation of the gene from a certain organism and inserts our desired gene in that organism.

Our desired character can be developed in a certain organism by using genetic engineering. Genetically modified organisms are produced by using genetic engineering or recombinant technique.

These are the top 10 best branches of biology. Biology itself is the branch of science, so don’t confuse branches of biology and science branches.

Sharqa Naeem

Sharqa Naeem

I am an undergraduate student of Microbiology at Capital University of Science and Technology CUST Islamabad.

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